When the land of the Saxon earls was confiscated after the Conquest it would appear that Orms property was acquired by, or granted to, Ralph de Mortimer; and Barchs by Hugh FitzBaldric.
Let us first deal with Ralph de Mortimer. He was the only son of Roger, who derived his surname from Mortemer en Lions in the Pays de Caux, between Neufchatel and Aumale in France. Ralph de Mortimer died in his castle of St. Victor-en-Caux on 5 August 1100 (or 1104) and was buried in the Abbey church there. He left two sons, Hugh and William; and a daughter, Hawise, who became the wife of Stephen, Earl of Albemarle and Holderness. Hughs descendants became the Earls of March; William died childless. The family seems to have no recorded connection with Gilling, except for a later reference (in the 12th century) when Peter de Ros, who was linked with the Mortimers by marriage, gave two carucates of land to St. Marys Abbey, York. It is likely that this land so granted was Orms, which had probably come into the Ros family by marriage. The Ros family also had land of Ralph de Mortimers in Whenmore. In the 12th century the land was in the possession of the Mowbrays and the Stutevilles.
Before we follow the fortunes of Orms land let us follow what is known about Barchs portion. As we have already seen, it was granted to Hugh FitzBaldric (i.e. Hugh the son of Baldric). It is not known which Norman family he came from, if indeed he was Norman. It has been stated that he was a German archer in the service of William the Conqueror. However, before 1067 he witnessed a charter of Gerald, granting the Nuns of St. Amand in Rouen the church of his fief of Roumare. Immediately after the capture of York by William in September 1069, Hugh FitzBaldric appears to have been made Sheriff of the County of York by the King. He fell into trouble by supporting Robert Duke of Normandy against William and presumably lost his lands. However, nothing more is heard of him.
Reverting to the Mowbrays land (i.e. that which was originally Orms): the first positive figure to emerge from the mists of time is Ivo de Vescy, who was a tenant of the Mowbrays elsewhere. Perhaps one could infer that the Mowbrays had obtained possession of both manors by now. Ivo de Vescy granted two carucates of land to St. Marys Abbey, York, and his son-in-law and then heir Eustace Fitzjohn (died 1157) gave, or confirmed, to St. Marys Abbey four carucates of land and the church with its half carucate of glebe land. There is a record of a grant in fee arms by Eustace Fitzjohn to the monks of St. Marys Abbey of four carucates, the church, and half a carucate in 1135-1147.
It was possibly quite an astute move on the part of Eustace, as the church was reported to be in a bad state of repair after the Harrying of the North. This is of interest because although no mention of a church was made in Domesday Book it must have been there some time before for it to be in a bad state of repair. The date of 1157 is of considerable interest. Down the centre aisle of the present church adjacent to the heating duct, and on the paving stones each side of it, four masons marks have been found. They are all the same, being a + sign with a x superimposed, giving a mark thus: S On consulting a paper in the Ryedale Historian (Volume 3, p.26), Mr Peter Svengard gives a list of 181 masons marks found in Byland Abbey. The mark found in Gilling Church appears in five places in the Abbey ruins, on parts which are dated 1170-1225. Allowing for a little time to elapse before St. Marys Abbey put the repair work in hand it would seem that the mason who worked in the Abbey worked on Gilling Church. A further confirmation of this is that the same mark is found both in the north transept and eastern aisle of York Minster, on work dated to the 13th century. The witnesses to Eustace Fitzjohns gift were: Roberto de Hopitai, Waltero Capellano (chaplain), Bernardo cap, Roberto Diacono (deacon), Willelmo Fillio Cruem, Johanna Burdun. The name of Walter as chaplain does not appear on the list of Rectors of Gilling. That list starts vaguely about 1200. It may be right to include him as the first Rector of Gilling.
In 1170 there was a grant by Stephen Gizi of Gilling, made to Rievaulx Abbey, in the territory of Gilling of one perch of land in width next to Holgate on the south side, from the footpath of the church to Litehou, to have a free way there, which road they may repair as they wish.
It was shocking to see the houses, the streets, and highways, human carcases swarming with wirms, disolving in putridity and emitting a most horrid stench; nor were there any left alive to cover them with earth, all having perished by sword or famine, or stimulated by hunger had abandoned their native land. During the space of nine years the country lay totally uncultivated. Between York and Durham not a home was inhabited, all was a lonely wilderness, the retreat of wild beasts and robbers and the terror of travelers.
It is supposed that above 100,000 human beings perished at this time, and hence many entries in Domesday Book are described as modo wastum est. At this time a Danish force entered the Humber and occupied York. To prevent the English helping the Danes against him, William is known to have devastated an area north and west of the City of York. Gilling might well have been included in this action.
To pass on from these troublesome times, in 1166-7 the vill belonged to Ralph and Adan Lovell. Will Surdeval granted to St. Marys Abbey three and a half carucates of land in which he probably became under-tenant. This land was then conveyed to Geoffrey de Stuteville by Abbot Clement between 1170 and 1175. He was probably made an under-tenant as in Kirbys inquest in 1284-5 St. Marys Abbey still owned three and a half carucates of land in Gilling.
Where all this land lay, and how much the grants overlapped, we cannot tell, as apart from the fact that it was in Gilling the position of the land is not given, as it would be on modern maps and surveys.
A feofment (no 1880) by Abbot Clement to William son of Botilda of Gilling of one bovate of land in Gilling to hold for 3/- per annum and by finding a cart with a man and oxen for the parson of Gilling to carry his grain and also by leading the tithe of his own land to the parsons barn (St. Marys cartulary). To Botilda and heirs. This was witnessed Lascallino (capellano-chaplain), Thomas Diacano (deacon), Adam de Rotamaeo (miller), Calfrido (the carrier), Calfrido de Thornton, Calfrido Ketelby.
Early in the reign of Henry II (1154-1189) Ivo de Vescy gave two carucates of land in Gilling, and Peter de Ros another two carucates with the church, to St. Marys Abbey, York. This seems to be the same land given by Eustace Fitzjohn mentioned previously. There was a link between the Fitzjohns and the Vescys. It may be that Fitzjohn, who was a son-in-law of the Vescys, really confirmed the two carucates and the church when he received his inheritance, and added a further two for good measure.
We now arrive at a period when the ownership position becomes much clearer. Gill states that a Thomas de Etton was Lord of Gilling from 1199-1216. The Ettons came from the village of Etton in the East Riding, north of Beverley. It is possible that they sprang from the Vescys. The first Etton mentioned by Gill is Galfrid de Etton who lived in 1154, though not named as Lord of Gilling. A further indication that the Ettons were linked with the Vescys can be seen in the similarities displayed in their coats-of-arms. This date of Thomas de Etton (1199-1216) takes us back to within 19 years of the death of Ralph de Mortimer, and this also implies that Thomas de Etton was already Lord of Gilling when Ivo de Vescy gave his two carucates and the church to St. Marys Abbey as mentioned above.
Under Layersthorpe there is a charter granting one toft of land and croft, by Abbot H of Byland to Thomas de Etton. The land was situated:
at the exit of the vill of L(ayersthorpe) next to the cross and one selion in Riskhow up to Stayngryof and half an acre in the same field next to the vill ane selion in Howstholm and one selion in Milneholm and one selion in Le Berugh towards Oswaldkirk with meadow adjacent to the said land throughout the field of L(ayersthorpe).
Although no date is recorded on this charter it is probably from 1199 - 1216, when a Thomas de Etton was Lord of Gilling. The position may possibly be identified as follows:
There is also a record of a grant by Adam de Gilling to John Rabot of Hovingham of a toft and croft in Gilling lying at the butts of the vill towards the north, next to the toft of Thomas de Etton on the south side. (Note that ad butto villi might be translated as abutting on the vill.)
Thomas de Etton was succeeded in 1216 by William de Etton. In 1221 a Thomas de Etton owed the King a mark for leave to summon Ingram de Cornborough (near Sheriff Hutton) and John Surdeval concerning land in Gilling. In the next record Thomas de Etton junior released to John Surdeval nine-and-a-half oxgangs of land in Gilling. This Thomas died in 1226.
How William de Etton fits into this situation is not very clear but he was still alive in 1251-2. In 1218-9 a Geoffrey de Etton, brother of Thomas de Etton junior, granted a mill in Gilling to Simon, son of William de Clifford for one pound of pepper. Also Osbert de Cornborough quitclaimed (released from a claim) to William de Etton his common pasture in Williams land in Gilling with certain exceptions. William granted Osbert the services of his men for which Osbert was to pay a pair of white gloves annually. Thomas de Etton had a son, Robert, who became the founder of the Ettons of Etton. In 1251 Walter Barn plaintiff and William de Etton warrantor, took legal action concerning one toft and six acres in Gilling, and one bovate and one-and-a-half acres of meadow in Gilling, right of William. At Walters request William grants to Robert Barn, son and heir of Walter, the toft and meadow and half an acre in the field called Brom. Walter grants that William de Etton and his heirs may hereafter enclose with dyke and hedge certain portions of their woods in the vill called Loftsco and Hardwud, and a certain assart called Moricesstoking, and also all the marsh between Durpol and Holbec as far as the old dyke to the west, and he make his profit from the said wood assart and marsh, saving to Walter common pasture in ther marsh after the hay is cut and carried.
In 1252 there is a record of legal action again between Osbert de Cornborough (Cornbrucg) and Wm de Etton, defendant, concerning common pasture claimed by Osbert in Williams land of Gilling. Osbert grants all right of common pasture, saving to Osbert common pasture for 35 sheep with lambs before weaning, 10 cows with calves etc., 16 oxen and 4 horses. If William puts any goats in the pasture Osbert may put 20 goats thereon. Osbert grants all rights of estover in Williams woods. Whether this is the same agreement as above, or confirmation, or a second agreement, is not clear.
In 1272 it appears that Ivo de Etton succeeded. He was knighted and thus became Sir Ivo de Etton; what he was knighted for, or when, we do not know, but he was certainly a more prominent national and local figure. He was Constable of Tikhill from 1235 to 1245 and held one knights fee of Roger de Mowbray in Yorkshire. He held 2¾ librates of land in the wapentake of Ryedale in 1255-6. In 1284/5 he was listed as a tenant. In the same year the land of Hugh Fitzbaldric, assessed at 2½ carucates, became part of the fee of Mowbray. Is there a link here? In the same year at Kirbys inquest, St. Marys Abbey, York held 3½ carucates in Gilling but no tenant or overlord is mentioned. In addition the Canon of Malton Priory held half a carucate.
The first mention of the size of the village was made in 1285 when it consisted of 14 cottages, 13 valued at a total of 18/- per annum and one at 8d, and a mill at 10/-. The population could have been about 100. None of these cottages now exists, but they were probably under the present estate cottages as in later years many dwellings were pulled down and rebuilt.
In 1290 the Archdeacon of Richmond summoned Sir Ivo de Etton for impounding 400 sheep at Gilling; Sir Ivo thought he had the right to do this. The jurors found that a certain field was enclosed for the people of the township from Michaelmas to Martinmas, and that the Archdeacons shepherd had placed his sheep in the field before Martinmas and this was wrong. They therefore decided that Sir Ivo was justified in impounding the sheep.
In 1301 subsidies were levied for the conduct of the Scottish Wars and the following amounts were raised in Gilling:
|De Domino Ivone de Etton||24s-9d|
|De Waltero de Gilling||5s-2d|
|De Willelmo de Porter||9d|
|De Willelmo Bonde||4d|
|De Willelmo D||4d|
|De Ricardo C||2s-1d|
...which is obviously wrong if you care to add it up! It should be 33s-5d. The levy was at the rate of one-fifteenth of the value of the mans property.
In the same year (1301) there was a dispute between William de Walton and Walter Wogan who claimed to be Rector. Wogan was ejected in 1301, so he must have lost the case. William de Walton continued as Rector until 1309, when Adam Luther was installed.
In 1307 Thomas, son of John of Wymbleton (Wombleton) was put in the stocks by Sir Ivo, and brought an action for assault. The defendant pleaded that Thomas, being a villein, had refused to perform his duty of working at the harvest, and therefore he had put him in the stocks as he had a perfect right to do. The plaintiff, Thomas, maintained that he was a free man of free status and condition and therefore not liable to the service in question.
In 1311 Adam Louther was soon in the Curia Regis (I presume Crown Court) as a plaintiff, and Lord Ivo de Etton as defendant. It was settled as follows:
Ivo granted to Adam 1 acre of meadow in the field of Gilling lying by metes and bounds next to UMPOLE in exchange and recompense for the use of pasture etc. which the Rector used to have in the enclosures of Ivo below. Ivo also granted to Adam part of his wood in ESTKIREWYTH as it extends in length from MYHYLBERGH to the arable land of Ivo called le LITTELSTOKING, and in breadth from the road of GREOGAT to the wood called SOUTHKEREWYTH. The Rector may cut the said wood and enclose the same and hold it in severalty and he (Ivo?) is to have recompense and exchange estovers of the Rector in the woods of ESPRON, STRYKESDALE and DALBUSKYS. Ivo also grants that he shall repair and sustain the mill pond and banks of the same. Ivo also grants 2 acres 1 rood of arable in the territory of Gilling lying in 4 selions: 2 selions near the gate of the Rector towards Calveton (Cawton) and 2 selions at LONCEHOW between Walter de Gilling on both sides, in exchange for 2 acres 1 rood of arable that the Rector demised to Ivo from the land of his church....For this concession the Rector grants to Ivo that he may peacefully have his mill and the meadow adjoining lately enclosed by Ivo and hold it in severalty. Also Ivo may retain ANENHUSLEGHES and HARDEKNONTELEGHES enclosed and may also enclose with ditch, wall or hedge and place in defence and hold in severalty STRIKESDALEBUSKYS and ESPRON and all the land wood and pasture within the said boundaries, i.e. from the wall next to Ivos bercary by the ditch and hedge under ANENLYN in length to the culture linearly up to the remoter part of ESPRON up to the south and thus from this remoter part beyond the culture of the Rector linearly which culture is called ESPRONFLATT and then from this culture by metes and bounds previously placed between Ivo and Walter de Gilling to the culture of the said Rector called SOUTHECOTFLATT and from there linearly descending beyond through the field towards the east to the field called HINBRANBERGH and thus up to the copse standing on the boundary of SERICROFT towards the west, and from the said boundary towards the north to the gardens of the vill of Gilling. The Rector also grants to Ivo that he may hold that alder grove enclosed in WESEKER next to the meadow called le HALLEENG as now enclosed and assart at his will. The Rector also grants 2 acres 1 rood of arable of the church land lying within metes and bounds of the said enclosures, which metes and bounds between Ivo and Walter de Gilling were made formerly, i.e. part of le WANDALES and part of SOUTHCOTEFLATT and the rest of the ESPRONFLATT. In exchange for the said 2 acres 1 rood of arable the Rector, for his part of the wood of SKEREWYTH remises his estovers in STRIKESDALEBUSKIES, ESPRON, and BALBUSKYS which estovers the Rector recovered against Ivo in the Royal court, saving to the Rector and his tenants, pasture in BALBUSKYS.This most complicated document seems to be a cleaning up of the land ownership of the Church and the Lord of the Manor. It is plain that there must have been some difficulties of boundaries, and bits here were exchanged for bits there, thus straightening up the dividing lines. It is tantalising not to be able to identify the various places and fields mentioned. The only field bearing a name is Wandales, which may be Wandales to the east of Syke Gate.
About 1310 an alliance was made with the Nevilles of Bulmer which later caused inheritance problems and troubles.
In 1314 the Rector was presented by the King, so the Crown must have had the advowson, not St. Marys Abbey or the de Ettons.
About this time Thomas de Etton was a retainer of John of Gaunt. Other dates are:
John de Etton was the son and heir of Thomas de Etton and his wife Isabel, who was the sister and heiress of John Dayvell, and widow of Richard Wilsthorp. John was knighted in 1390 and married before 1388, to Kath the younger daughter of William de Everingham and co-heir of her grandfather, Lord Everingham of Laxton in Nottinghamshire. She must have died before 1420, as John was married again, to Elizabeth who survived him. He died on 25th March 1432/3. His will was dated 1st October 1431, and proved on March 30th. His eldest son having died some time before, his four daughters were heiresses; Ivo the second son being heir male.
John de Etton held the manor of Gilling in Ryedale, which was his seat, and in addition lands at Cawton, Kirkbymoorside, Yearsley and Ravensthorpe; also in the right of his wife the manors of Kirkburn, Kipling Cotes and North Leverton. His life was a most eventful one, and a list of his high spots follows:
From the above list there is no doubt that John de Etton was one of the most colourful and active characters that ever lived in Gilling Castle. Throughout his life he was fully engaged either in litigation brought by him or against him, sitting in Parliament or serving on County commissions. His eldest son Miles pre-deceased him. Miles left four daughters, but they did not succeed to the estate. The second son Ivo was settled in the tail-male in 1438 with the remainder to his fathers right heirs. Ivo died without issue, and was followed by his brother Alexander, a clerk in Holy Orders, and the last of the Ettons of Gilling.
Actual relics of the Etton family are few but significant. The main one of course is the castle itself, especially the lower storey. Also there is a tomb recess bearing the de Etton arms in the south aisle of the church. Where the de Ettons were buried we do not know, but probably somewhere under the church floor. They were probably also responsible for widening the church chancel.
In 1446 Alexander de Etton exchanged the Rectory of Gilling for that of the above mentioned church of Laxton in Nottinghamshire with Thomas Tanfield of Laxton. Thomas Tanfield appears in the list of Rectors for Gilling but Alexander de Etton does not appear in the Laxton lists. This exchange suggests that the church became part of Alexanders inheritance and not being entailed had passed like the lands at Laxton to the four daughters of Miles. Thomas Tanfield probably acted as trustee.
In spite of the agreement of 1349 on the occasion of the marriage into the Fairfax family, the manor was settled on Alexander for life (it being impossible for him as a cleric to have legal children) and the remainder to Sir Thomas Neville Knt. and others and the heirs of Neville. Sir Thomas Neville, younger brother of Ralph Duke of Westmorland was a Lancastrian attainted with his son Humphrey in 1461. Sir Thomas was already dead, but his son escaped from the Tower of London, and again took up arms against the king. He was pardoned but rose again in 1464 when his kinsman the Earl of Warwick beseiged Bamborough Castle. Edward IV offered a pardon to the whole garrison with the exception of the leaders Sir Ralph Grey and Sir Humphrey Neville. Sir Ralph was captured and beheaded, but Sir Humphrey again escaped and after lying in hiding for 5 years rebelled in 1469. He was captured and beheaded in the Kings presence in York.
Meanwhile the King had granted the manor of Gilling to Sir Edmund Hastings Kt., but when Sir Humphrey was pardoned in 1463 the reversion was granted. In 1467 it reverted back to Sir Edmund Hastings who held it until 1489 or 1492. On his demise the Gilling manor and estates were successfully claimed by the Fairfax family under the marriage settlement of 1349. The successful claimant was Sir Thomas Fairfax of Walton, 5th descendant from Elizabeth de Etton.